Learning the basic knowledge of NC milling machine tools
(1) Understand the history, classification and sex of knives
(2) Learning the sensitivity principle of knife selection Mlj and accuracy principle:
(3) Mastering the knowledge of how to judge the appearance of J1,
") Knowledge and application performance of palm turning and following.
Development history of cutting tools
The cutter is 11 pieces of mechanical manufacturing towel used for cutting m. It is also called cutting tool t. Broad cutting tools include tools and
Most of the cutters are machine tools, but some are hand tools. Since the cutting tools used for mechanical manufacturing are used for
Cutting ship metal materials. Therefore, the cutter is generally understood as a metalworking cutter. The cutter NJ used for cutting wood is called woodworking
The development of Dao has played an important role in the history of human progress
Ji), people have explored the carbon diagnosis technology and made an example knife] i. The drill and feather at that time and the modern flat drill
Similarities. However, JJ didn't show up quickly until the late 18th century with the development of Yan steam turbine and other machines.1783
Rene, France, first produced Ni Dao. In 1792, the silk bond and die were made in Britain. About fried dough twist drill
Gelatin was first recorded in 1822, but it was not produced as a commodity until 1864. The tool at this time is
The allowable cutting speed is about S m/min
In 1868, British Mushet made tungsten containing alloy "steel". In 1898, British Taylor and White invented
Quick Li. In 1923, German Schreuter invented cemented carbide. The cutting speed of the tool is increased when the alloy "r" tool is used
When high speed steel is used, the cutting speed of the tool lug is twice as fast as that of the alloy tool
Above; When cemented carbide is used, the cutting speed of the tool is twice higher than that of high-speed steel
The areal texture and size tolerance are also very high.
The high speed sinking and hard alloy are expensive. The tool M is welded and mechanically clamped] 94, I
In 1950, the United States began to use indexable inserts on turning tools, which were soon applied to sharp knives and other tools. 1938
Jinguo Degussa Company obtained a patent for ceramic cutting tools. In 1972, General Electric Company of the United States produced glass crystal artificial gold
Corundum and Cejing cubic pot turning blade. The use of this non-metallic tool material allows the tool to cut at a higher speed, 1969
Year Ruibing Shantevik Key Factory obtained a patent for chemical vapor deposition to produce coated carbide inserts. 1972
In, Bangsha and Lazhanlan in the United States developed the physical air button deposition method. The surface of cemented carbide high-speed steel tool was coated with anti cracking property
Or potting soft and hard layer. The surface creep method combines the high strength and toughness of climbing materials with the quotient hardness and foot resistance of the surface layer
Get up. Congshan makes this composite material have better cutting performance.
2. Classification and characteristics of NC milling machine tools
The tool month can be divided into the following five categories according to the form of the workpiece surface to be machined.
(1) Tools for machining various external surfaces. Including turning tools, chuang tools, chen tools, external broaches, gui tools, etc.
(2) Hole processing tools, including drill reamer and sex cutter. Tools for thread machining, including wire broaches, internal surface broaches, etc
Conical die, Baidong opening and closing Nafen cutting head, naked grave turning knife and Wenyue knife, etc
(3) Gear processing cutter, including roll JJ, trace cutter, brake cutter, push gear processing cutter, etc.
(4) The cutting tool comprises a female saw blade, a band mat, a hacksaw, a cutting turning tool, a pot blade sharp knife, etc
(5) Siamed knife.
According to the cutting motion mode and the corresponding blade shape, tools can be divided into the following three categories.
(1) General tools, such as turning tools, cutting tools, Yue tools, regret tools, drill bits, reamers, calibration tools and accounts
(2) Forming cutter, the blade of which has the same or similar shape with the section of the workpiece to be processed, such as forming firmly
Knives, shaping planers, shaping sharp tools, broaches, ring taper correction tools and various bare grain processing tools
(3) Spread it into a knife It is a kind of cutter that uses the generating method to process the w surface of gear or similar workpieces, such as hob, lifting cutter, gear brake cutter, bevel gear cutter and Xu gear cutter The structure of the working part of the tool is divided into three types: integral type, flexible type and mechanical clamping type. The integral structure is used to make a sharp cutting edge on the knife body. The shuttle type jaw is used to braze the blade to the key type knife body There are two types of mechanical central fixed structures: one is to clamp the blade on the rest, and the other is to clamp the blade with a good rod around the blade body. The cemented carbide cutter is welded into a mechanical clamping structure; Porcelain foot cutters are mechanically clamped.
When choosing the angle of the tool, we should consider various factors, such as the workpiece material, the tool merging material, and the additive property (such as
Rough and finish machining) must be reasonably selected according to specific conditions. Generally speaking, the tool angle refers to the marked angle used for manufacturing and inside. In the actual work, due to the different installation position I of the cutter and the change of the moving direction of the cutting case The actual working angle is different from the dimension angle, but the difference is usually small. The lift control tool has many different requirements compared with the tools used on ordinary machine tools, mainly as follows
(1) Good usage (especially rough machining tools). High precision and small thermal deformation
(2) Good interchangeability, convenient for quick tool change
(3) An has a long life. He can cut Yu's performance and make Zheng feel beautiful
(4) The size is located at the other side of the continent, so as to reduce the time required for tool change and lubrication
(5) It shall be possible to break or roll the circumference locally to facilitate the removal of the cutting side
(6) Serialization and standardization to facilitate programming and tool management.
3_ Material family of Dao
In the process of metal cutting A9, the cutting part of 7J tool bears a lot of cutting force and severe friction, and produces a very distant cutting edge. When cutting the workpiece intermittently, the tool will be impacted and vibrated, causing the fluctuation of cutting edge. The material used to make the tool must have a very distant high hardness and wear resistance Necessary strength, impact toughness and chemical inertness, Good workmanship (such as cutting, section building and heat treatment) does not shake deformation. When the material is high in hardness, the turning over property is also high. When the resistance is high, the impact toughness is also high. It seems that the higher the hardness of the material, the lower the resistance strength and impact initial strength. High speed cutting has very high resistance, impact toughness and good processability. At present, it is still the most widely used knife material, followed by cemented carbide.
CNC milling machine is applicable to the grinding and hardening of cutting inkstone, hard cast iron, etc. Mesocrystalline diamond is applicable to the cutting of iron free metals As well as alloy, plastic and glass steel, carbon tool keys and gold storage tool keys are now only used for tools such as magic knife, die and Gui Wei The carbide indexable inserts have been coated with carbide, long carbide, heavy carbide or composite hard layers by chemical vapor deposition. The developing physical vapor deposition (PVD) method is not only used for hard full cutting tools It can also be used for high-speed cutting tools, such as drills, hobs, wire inserts and Yue knives. The hard layer can prevent chemical diffusion and heat conduction, and reduce the service life of the knife when cutting. The life of the coated blade is more than 1-3 times longer than that of the uncoated blade. At present More and more difficult to machine materials are used for parts working in high pressure, high speed and corrosive fluid media. The automation level of cutting and cutting machining and the demand for machining accuracy are getting higher and higher. In order to adapt to this situation, the development direction of cutting tools will be to develop and apply new tool materials and further develop the technology of vapor deposition coating for cutting tools Depositing harder coatings on the four bodies with high toughness and high strength can better solve the contradiction between the hardness and strength of tool materials. In addition, further develop the structure of indexable tools, improve the side build accuracy of tools, and optimize the use of tools.
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In fact, it is difficult to solve the problem of whether a three-axis CNC machining center is better or a four-axis machining center is better. There is only a problem that is not suitable for machining some kinds of parts. Basically, all three-axis machining centers can process the parts that can be processed by a four axis machining center, while the parts that can be processed by a four axis machining center may not be processed by a three-axis machining center.
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